Glossary of terms

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Addiction and substance abuse

Addiction to substances, such as drugs or alcohol, is a chronic disease that affects the brain’s reward system. The disease blocks a person’s ability to control behaviors and cravings, maintain healthy relationships and more. As with other chronic illnesses, person with addiction might cycle through periods of relapse and remission. Without professional treatment, addiction may cause lifelong harm or death.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

People with ADHD experience a regular pattern of inattention and/or severe hyper and impulsive behavior that interferes with regular functioning or development. ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders. Children with ADHD might experience difficulty sitting still, frequent boredom and daydreaming, lack of self-control and more.

Agoraphobia

An anxiety disorder, people with agoraphobia have extreme fear about actual or anticipated circumstances that may cause embarrassment, vulnerability or panic. For example, a person with agoraphobia may avoid riding on a public bus at all costs because he or she may not have access to a restroom if they need it.

Anorexia nervosa

Commonly known as anorexia, people with anorexia nervosa:

  • severely limit the food they ingest
  • are extremely fearful of gaining weight or have behaviors that prevent weight gain
  • have a distorted view of their weight or body

Commonly emerging during teenage years, warning signs of anorexia include refusal to eat certain categories of foods, dramatic weight loss, odd eating behaviors and more. Without professional treatment, anorexia may cause lifelong harm or death.

Anxiety disorder

Much more extreme than the common anxieties experienced in daily life, anxiety disorders cause persistent, intense fears about real or perceived threats. When a person has an anxiety disorder, these feelings will cause behavior modifications to the point of disrupting regular functioning. Specific anxiety disorders include panic disorder, social anxiety and others. If left untreated, anxiety disorders can worsen over time.

Art therapy

A proven-effective treatment technique, art therapy is offered Rogers to help patients reap the benefits of creative activity. Even a patient is not artistically skilled, he or she might visually connect with program goals and find a safe outlet for expression with the help of trained staff. Projects include murals, masks, or small crafts, depending on location and treatment team.

Behavioral activation (BA)

An evidence-based therapy technique, behavioral activation is used in multiple programs at Rogers. Helping to reduce isolation and depression, a patient will gradually engage in meaningful and interactive activities that may have once been enjoyable or try new activities that have been shown to improve mood.

Binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder is a type of eating disorder in which a person repeatedly eats extreme portions of food, even when not hungry. People with binge eating disorder experience a lack of control during their binging and often eat alone or secretively due to embarrassment. Untreated binge eating disorder may harm a person’s quality of life and lead to serious medical concerns.

Bulimia nervosa

Commonly known as bulimia, people with bulimia nervosa have repeated episodes of uncontrollable binging (eating extremely excessive portions) followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (vomiting), excessive exercise or use of laxatives. For people with bulimia, weight and body image are typically central factors for determining self-esteem. Untreated bulimia may cause severe damages to the body.

Bipolar disorder

Individuals with bipolar disorder experience severe shifts from mania to depression, as well as changes in thoughts and actions. Manic episodes are commonly described as periods of excessive joy or enthusiasm, while depressive periods may cause extreme low energy or hopelessness.   

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

BDD is a related obsessive-compulsive disorder in which a person becomes fully engrossed with his or her perceived body flaws, which only appear minor or not at all to others. Individuals with this disorder will have repetitive behaviors surrounding their appearance, such as frequently checking mirrors. These obsessions cause disturbances in regular functioning at work, social settings and more.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

CBT is an evidence-based therapy technique that is used in various programs at Rogers. The technique helps patients make effective adjustments in thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Over time, individuals will gain control over compulsions or anxieties and learn healthy strategies to be used beyond our care.

David Jacobi, PhD, clinical supervisor of the residential Child Center, explains CBT in more detail: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a20BmI9Yeo8

Co-occurring or comorbid conditions

People who have more than one mental health disorder at a given time have co-occurring, or comorbid, conditions. Some disorders have a high probability of co-occurring, such as eating disorders and anxiety. Oftentimes, one disorder may develop as a response to the first. For example, a person with binge eating disorder may feel deeply ashamed of their disorder to the point they develop social anxiety. Research tells us the best method for treating comorbid conditions is treating them at the same time, or dually.

Depression and mood disorders

People with depression and other mood disorders may experience dysregulation in their emotions and withdrawal from family, friends, previously enjoyable activities and more. Common features may include an overwhelming sense of emptiness, irritability, sadness and other moods, which disrupt regular functioning.

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)

DBT is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that helps individuals challenge unhelpful patterns in behavior and thinking. CBT allows a patient to build techniques for personal acceptance, distress tolerance, mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness and emotional regulation. These skills help reduce self-defeating behaviors and create a solid foundation for wellness.

Dual diagnosis

A person diagnosed with a mental health disorder and an addiction. Treating dual diagnoses at once is proven to be the most effective method for recovery. For instance, if a patient’s depression is treated, but not the existing alcoholism, he or she might begin drinking more frequently as method for coping.

Eating disorder

Eating disorder is a general term encompassing more specific disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and others. People with eating disorders may have unhealthy relationships with food, exercise, weight or body image, which disrupt regular functioning. These serious disorders affect men and women of all ages, ethnicities and socioeconomic statuses. If left untreated, eating disorders can cause lifelong harm or death.

Experiential therapy

A general term, experiential therapy encompasses an array of proven effective therapies including art therapy, horticultural therapy, dance or movement therapy, recreational therapy, pet therapy and other therapies. Led by trained experiential therapists, these methods are used to develop creative expression, build trust and create lifelong skills through new experiences.

Exposure and response prevention (ERP)

ERP is an evidence-based therapy technique used in various programs at Rogers. A component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), ERP is useful for a person gradually and repeatedly confront feared situations, thoughts, images and impulses. At a comfortable pace, our trained staff members help patients reduce their symptoms and work towards overcoming more challenging anxieties over time.

Horticultural therapy

An evidence-based technique, horticultural therapy incorporates natural a treatment plan through purposefully designed projects and planting opportunities. Horticultural therapy facilitates the creation of healthy lifestyle skills and the achievement of therapeutic goals, including overcoming anxiety-related exposures, accepting imperfections, developing responsibility, creating a positive relationship with food and more.

Hierarchy

With the help of staff, a individual develops a hierarchy of fears as part of exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy. Commonly referred to as the road map for treatment, hierarchies list all existing anxieties, from minor to major fears. Over the course of treatment, a patient will practice facing feared stimuli by first overcoming lesser anxieties and eventually addressing more challenging ones.

Inpatient

The highest level of mental healthcare, inpatient treatment features 24/7 monitoring and emergency care. While in inpatient care, patients reside on-campus in one of our secure hospital facilities until they are medically stable and can safely transition into lower levels of programming. Our inpatient services offer care for a wide range of mental health concerns, including eating disorders, depression and mood disorders, withdrawal management and general mental health.

Intensive outpatient program (IOP)

The lowest level of mental healthcare, intensive outpatient programs offer convenient daytime options for making minor adjustments in mental health skills and prolonging recovery. Available for a range of mental health concerns, these programs allow patients to build support networks and practice techniques to be used outside of our care.

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

MDD is a type of mood disorder that can develop in any age or gender, but most frequently appears in young adulthood. A person with MDD may experience the following for 2 or more weeks:

  • depressed or irritable mood, feeling worthless or guilty
  • decreased energy, interest in activities or ability to concentrate
  • extreme changes in appetite or sleep patterns
  • recurrent thoughts about committing suicide

If left untreated, people with MDD are at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. Seeking early treatment increases chances of being successful in programming.

Medication-assisted treatment (MAT)

Patients with substance use disorders enrolled in Rogers’ programming have access to MAT, which is comprehensive therapy in combination with medication. These medications help avoid or reduce withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse and address obstacles to recovery.

Motivational interviewing (MI)

Motivational interviewing is an evidence-based therapeutic technique used in various programs to inspire self-motivation. With the help of a mental health professional, patients will develop the drive to effectively change behaviors and be successful in treatment.

Mindfulness

Mindfulness is a core skill of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) that allows individuals to be fully aware in the current moment. A person who is mindful is present with their body and senses and can observe and describe events in a nonjudgmental way.

Opioid

Opioid is a general term for a drug that relieves pain. Some opioids are prescribed by doctors after surgeries or serious accidents, while others—such as heroin—are used for illegal recreation. Opioids are commonly abused because they are easily accessible and found in many homes. People with prescription opioid abuse are at higher risk for developing heroin addiction.  

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

People with obsessive-compulsive disorder, or OCD, combat intrusive, anxiety-inducing thoughts or urges with compulsions and rituals. Compulsions and rituals are time-consuming, repetitive behaviors, such as persistent hand-washing, checking or other rigid rules. A person with OCD believes if they do not follow rituals, a bad event will occur. People with OCD spend more than 1 hour per day participating in their compulsions, which often disrupt regular functioning.

Panic disorder

People with panic disorder have recurring and unexpected panic attacks, which are sudden rushes of intense fear. Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. During a panic attack, a person may experience:

  • A racing heart, sweating or shaking
  • Dizziness or nausea
  • ot or cold sensations
  • Feelings of choking
  • Loss of reality

With the help of treatment, individuals with the disorder can learn strategies to reduce anxieties.

Partial hospital program (PHP)

Partial hospital programs are one of Rogers’ lowest levels of treatment for children, teens and adults. These daytime programs offer guidance for making adjustments for daily life outside our care. Patients enrolled in a PHP receive treatment at one of our sites for a portion of the day and return to life with family or friends between sessions. Rogers provides access to a variety of partial hospital programs for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety, eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and mood disorders, addiction, dual diagnosis and general mental health.

Prolonged exposure

Prolonged exposure is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) used to treat trauma. By gradually recalling or interacting with feared stimuli, anxiety surrounding the perceived threat will decrease over time because the brain realizes that it is possible to reconnect with places, objects or people related to the trauma, without anything bad happening.

Parent University

To help children be as successful as possible during and after treatment, Rogers offers educational sessions to parents and caregivers of children enrolled in various programs. In Parent University, parents learn about the therapeutic strategies their child is using and how to incorporate these skills at home.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

A person may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, such as military combat, sexual assault or natural disaster. Symptoms of PTSD vary by individual, but some common signs are:

  • Recurrent, frightening dreams or flashbacks about the event
  • Losing awareness of present surroundings
  • Avoidance of places, people or memories that relate to the event

With treatment, symptoms of PTSD can be reduced to a manageable level.

Purging

Purging is recurrent eating disorder behavior to control weight or shape, such as misuse of laxatives or self-induced vomiting. A person who purges may make frequent trips to the restroom to purge their meals. Purging can cause serious physical health concerns, including tooth decay, dehydration, acid reflux and more.

Relapse

Relapse is the return of mental health symptoms. Relapse is not failure, it’s a common experience for many on the road to recovery. For many, symptoms that begin to reoccur can be successfully addressed with the skills and resiliency developed in treatment. A person with mental illness is always at risk for relapse based on factors related to environment, medication and more. Relapse can happen with many illnesses, including addiction, eating disorders, depression and more. Planning for continued care and life outside of treatment helps prevent relapse.

Residential

Patients in residential care stay on campus in a comfortable, home-like treatment setting with homework and dining area, group rooms, semi-private bedrooms, recreation and activity rooms. Residential treatment offers a level of treatment between inpatient and outpatient services. By residing and receiving treatment on campus, individuals can build a solid foundation before transitioning into lower levels of care and facing life’s daily challenges. Rogers offers residential treatment for children, teens and adults for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety, eating disorders, addiction and substance use disorders, and mood disorders.

Resilience 

Resilience is the ability to quickly recover from life’s difficulties. It is an important quality for success in life. This trait that allows individuals to exist in this less-than-perfect world, while still moving forward with optimism and confidence—even when faced with challenges or difficulties which might otherwise keep us down.

Ruminative thoughts

People who ruminate, or have ruminative thoughts, obsessively reflect and analyze negative events or aspects of life. Rumination makes it difficult for people to overcome bad moods, practice effective problem-solving and maintain healthy relationships.

Selective mutism

Selective mutism is a type of anxiety disorder in which a child remains silent in specific social situations where speaking is encouraged, such as at school. A child with selective mutism will speak to immediate family members, but may not interact with more distant relatives or even friends. This failure to speak disrupts other aspects of life, including education or social experiences. Children with the disorder may also be excessively shy, afraid of social embarrassment, isolated, oppositional and more. A child must experience the symptoms for 1 month to be diagnosed.

Self-harm

Self-harm, or self-harming behaviors, are intentional acts of repeatedly physically injuring oneself for temporary feelings of relief, pleasure or control. These acts may include cutting, burning, punching and more. These behaviors indicate underlying mental health concerns, such as depression, anxiety, other disorders or thoughts of suicide. If you or someone you know participates in self-harm, seek professional mental health services.

Spiritual care

The healing process involves the whole person, including mind, body and spirit. To address the spiritual aspect of health, Rogers offers supportive spiritual care resources for any religion, spirituality or worldview. Varying by location, these services include reflection groups, one-to-one consolations, worship services and more.

Stigma

A negative attitude about something, either against oneself or others. Fear or shame surrounding mental health conditions prevent many people seeking treatment, building recovery networks and living healthy, productive lives. The best ways to eliminate stigma are to share experiences and get to know people with mental health challenges.

Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation refers to a person’s thoughts about hurting themselves, with serious deliberation or planning about how to commit suicide. Help individuals who share their suicidal thoughts seek emergency care immediately.

Skin-picking and hair-pulling disorder

Skin-picking disorder (excoriation) and hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania) are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and cause a person to pick, pull or tear at his or her hair or skin. These disorders are characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors as well as thoughts about these behaviors or resisting urges. People with skin-picking or hair-pulling disorder may have reduced functioning at work or in social relationships, and experience shame or a loss of control regarding the disorder.

Telepsychiatry or telemedicine

Telepsychiatry, or telemedicine, allows patients to receive treatment from a psychiatrist through a video conference program, similar to Skype or FaceTime, but with heightened security. Under the supervision of nursing staff, patients use the program at Rogers’ campuses to speak with a psychiatrist who could be hundreds of miles away.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation, or TMS, is an FDA-approved treatment technique for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). A machine uses targeted magnetic pulses to stimulate the prefrontal cortex region of the brain, which is underactive in patients suffering from depression. TMS has been shown to decrease symptoms of MDD.

Tourette’s syndrome

Tourette’s disorder, or Tourette’s syndrome, is a type of tic disorder, in which a person has reoccurring, sudden movements and vocal tics. Tics may vary in frequency over time, but will have occurred for more than 1 year to be categorized as Tourette’s syndrome. Typically, the disorder emerges before adulthood.

Trauma

Trauma is the body’s response to witnessing or experiencing a frightening event, such as a natural disaster or sexual assault. Symptoms of trauma vary greatly by person, but may include extreme fear surrounding the event, anger or aggression, withdrawn behavior and more. A person with trauma may develop anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many people who seek treatment are able to work with their care team to reduce symptoms.

Withdrawal management (detox)

The highest level of addiction treatment, withdrawal management—or detox, offers a safe environment to withdraw from drugs or alcohol. Our trained staff provide techniques for reducing symptoms during the challenging process, which may include medication. The treatment team also develops an individualized plan continued care.

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